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消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第1張圖片

城市公園De Motten
City Park De Motten

由專筑網若山,小R編譯

復原通赫倫杰克河歷史的‘De Motten’城市更新公園

“De Motten”作為一處更新的城市休閑公園,復原了杰克河曾流經此處的支流,是優化市中心小氣候、提升生活質量的典型案例。

60多年過去,杰克河終于再次流經通赫倫市中心,這座比利時最古老的城市可以追溯到前羅馬時期。建筑師希望利用這個曾經被填埋的廢棄裸露河床,重新塑造城市內的河道。于是,一處親水的城市公園圍繞著河流建成。如今,這里可供娛樂和休閑的開放空間已成為充滿活力的城市聚會場所。

Renovated city park ‘De Motten’ with disclosure of the Jeker River in Tongeren.
The renovation of ‘De Motten’ as a recreational City Park with full disclosure of an historic branch of the Jeker River is a good example of how water can give the transition towards climate adaptation and quality of life a solid boost in city centers.
After more than 60 years the Jeker flows again through the center of the oldest and a former Roman city of Belgium called Tongeren. The aim of the project was to use the disclosure of an old derelict and once-covered riverbed to redesign its surroundings as a valley area within the city. A city park with water experience was created around the river. Today, the area has become a revitalized meeting area with open spaces for recreation and retreat.

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第2張圖片

該項目以憑借經驗恢復自然功能作為設計指南,以古城與自然環境的對比作為設計原則。杰克河沿古城墻流動,形成城市和河谷之間的紐帶。這條河流經堅硬的水泥城市和柔軟的天然河岸。沿著河流路線,它將打開通往河谷的大門,把東加蘭自然保護區(De Kevie)的自然美景和戶外體驗帶到了通赫倫本地人民和外來游客的觸手可及之處。

杰克河的新開頭,以羅馬神“雅努斯(Janus)”作為隱喻,應用了各種過渡形式。重新設計的公園利用超過1公里的杰克河減少了公園及其周圍的硬覆蓋面積,以實現新的可達性。公園和停車場的原有道路都被拆除,重新在場地外圍安置,有的則被移到公園邊緣。這樣一來,公園形成了一個具有凝聚力的整體,充分發揮作為中央城市公園和河谷的重要紐帶的作用。


將歷史注入周圍環境來實現轉型

通過Sweco設計團隊的座右銘“共同改變社會”,便可知曉其專注于轉型的基本理念。一個新建起的城市公園都將影響很長一段時間,更何況這是一條河流的新起點。設計的出發點是與被遺忘的過去建立聯系,重建價值觀。因此,建筑師給出的答案是首先重建河床,為這個河流湮滅的城市注入新的生命。河床沿著古羅馬和中世紀的城墻延伸。一組新的橋梁連接城市與河谷另一邊的公園和生活區。原有的社區花園沒有被摧毀或隱藏,而是融入了公園和城市生活。

同時,新打造的流線方案強調了文化遺產、住宅特色和安全的學校環境,讓新鮮的空氣吹過城市低地的街道。停車場被轉移到公園邊緣,整合到整個市中心的新配送系統中。沒有后續使用的鋪裝都被拆除,改造成水面和帶有人行道和自行車道的綠色開放空間。

The guideline was the restoration of natural functions combined with experiences. The contrast between the old city and the natural environment was used as a design principle. The Jeker follows the old city walls and thus forms the link between the city and the valley. The river has a hard urban and a soft natural bank. Along its course, it opens up the door to the valley and brings the natural treasures and outdoor qualities of ‘De Kevie’ within reach of the people of Tongeren and its visitors.
A new beginning for the Jeker River, with the various forms and meanings of transition embodied by the Roman god ‘Janus’ as a metaphor. In conjunction with the disclosure of the Jeker over more than 1 kilometre and the redesign of the park, the opportunity was taken to reduce the amount of hard-covered surfaces in the park and its surroundings, linked to a new vision of mobility. Existing roads throughout the park and parking lots were removed, and alternatives were sought in the surroundings or partly moved to the edges. The result is now a large cohesive whole that can fully play the role of a central City Park and a vital link in the valley.

Focus on transition by connecting with the past and surroundings
Based on the Sweco motto ‘Transforming society together’, the underlying idea was to focus on transition. A new City Park is created to last a long time, opening up a river even more so. A new beginning is based on the idea of connecting with a forgotten past and reestablishing old key values. The answer was, of course, to begin with, the reconstruction of the riverbed to breathe new life into a place where the city had turned its back on the river. The riverbed follows the old Roman and Medieval ramparts. A set of new bridges rebounds the city with the park and living areas on the other side of the valley. Existing Community gardens were not wiped out or hidden away but integrated into the park and city life.
Meanwhile, a new fresh wind blew through the streets of the lower city with a new circulation plan in function which emphasizes heritage, the residential character and safe school environments. Parking was shifted to the edge and integrated into a new distribution system for the entire city centre. Covered surfaces with no further use were removed and transformed into water surfaces and green open spaces with footpaths and bicycle lanes.

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第3張圖片

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第4張圖片
河道遺址上遺留著舊城墻和女修道院
Heritage riverbanks with old ramparts and beguinage


為人類和自然提供親水體驗

杰克河和通赫倫城市一樣獨特。這座于前羅馬時代建設的城市,矗立在靠雨水匯入的河岸上。因此,水流的變化基本來自掌管天氣季節之神的突發奇想,或者依賴于人類行為和氣候變化?刂聘髦Я鞯牧髁靠梢哉{節干流河流量和流速,防止旱澇。河道中的魚梯讓上游魚類可以再度遷徙。

公園的“心臟”和古城下的新景觀——“水廣場”,坐落在河流彎道處,旁邊是“Kastanjewal”古城墻!八畯V場”的親水體驗,讓水的重要作用變得有形且可見。一座獨特的“三尖”橋是畫龍點睛之筆。在歷史上,這里是古羅馬城門與河流相連的十字路口。

Water experiences for humans and nature
The Jeker as a river is just as atypical as the city of Tongeren. A former Roman city based on the banks of a river mainly watered by rainfall. Therefore the water flow varies greatly according to the whims of the weather gods and the seasons, the extent of human water management and the impact of climate changes. Flow control on the different branches regulates the flow and rate of the river to prevent flooding and shortage of water. Fish ladders in the course of the river make upstream fish migration possible again.
In a bend of the river, comfortably nestled against the old ramparts of ‘Kastanjewal’, a new ‘Water Square’ forms the ‘heart’ of the park and a new focal point at the foot of the old city. The ‘Water Square’ makes the vital role of water tangible and visible and links it to experience. A unique ‘three-pointed’ bridge completes the picture was once an old Roman crossroad and gate engaged with the river.

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第5張圖片

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第6張圖片

“水廣場”遵循地形走勢,形成開放的會客空間,并設置了一個以水的體驗為中心的圓形劇場。它為所有年齡段的人提供了一個安全、可控的親水環境,在視覺上與杰克河相連,雖然事實并非如此。夏天,這里可以用作游戲噴泉,而冬天則可以被改造成滑冰池。等到市中心的整個供水系統修復完成,這里的供水則同時來源于從山上流下來的干凈雨水和自來水。

The ‘Water Square’ follows the natural contours of the terrain and forms an open meeting space with a lowered amphitheatre centred around the experience of water. It forms a safe and controlled water environment for all ages that is visually linked to the Jeker without actually being connected to it. In summer it’s being used as a play fountain while in winter it can be transformed into an ice-skating pond. Ultimately, when the entire water system of the city centre is remediated, it will be fed by clean rainwater flowing down from the hill, but in the meantime, it’s still being fed by tap water.

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第7張圖片

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第8張圖片

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第9張圖片

復雜項目中的“BUUR touch”

正是因為有各個政府機構和行政部門合作參與這個強大的“設計流程驅動”項目,“De Motten”和杰克河的修復才如此成功。這是Sweco設計團隊和BUUR所代表的跨學科方法的典型例子。對涉及眾多學科、有各類合作伙伴參與的復雜任務時,設計本身是關鍵。一方面要在所有的評估和決策步驟中實現目標和預期,另一方面是在整個過程中明確傳達關鍵信息。

利益相關者和公眾見證了整個項目的發展,從一個可行的方案,到在技術上得到證實。從勘測、總體規劃、設計再到執行,整個過程在短短5年內完成,已實現90%的總體規劃。


成果

現在,每個人都可以在公園里找到各種形式的休閑活動。運動、遺產、自然和文化在城市公園中發揮著核心作用,成為許多騎行和步行路線的起點,為公共空間和地方流動帶來了顯著的改善。這項有益的公共行動,有助于營造一個安全愉快的生活環境,加強老城區的旅游和娛樂潛力,凝聚了社區的社會網絡。作為一個新的“打卡點”,公園和河岸得到了廣泛的支持,促使這里成為一個美麗、且有意義的聚會場所。

被卸下了鋪裝的地表面積超出一公頃。設計團隊看到了河流沿岸自然功能的恢復能力,對河谷和城市環境都有重大意義。后來,通赫倫市政府又選擇在這里實施氣候適應計劃中的總目標。因此,該市最近在公園內額外種植了200棵“氣候樹”。

2021年,“復原通赫倫杰克河歷史的‘De Motten’城市更新公園”獲得了公共空間獎。區域知識中心公共空間所每年都會為佛蘭德斯的“最佳”公共空間頒發獎項。公共空間獎是對項目良好調試、高質量設計和執行過程的著名表彰。專業人士和公眾都可以為其最喜歡的項目投票。設計團隊為這一認可到非常自豪,表示未來將繼續致力于可持續公共空間的設計。

The ‘BUUR touch’ in complex projects
‘De Motten’ and disclosure of the Jeker is the result of a successful collaboration between various governmental institutions and administrations that took part in a strong ‘design and process-driven’ project. It’s an example of the interdisciplinary approach that we at Sweco and BUUR stand for. Within a complex assignment and constellation of actors involving many disciplines and partners, design was key. Not only to carry the goals and ambitions through all the steps of evaluations and decision-making but also to clearly communicate the core message throughout the entire process.
With visual power, both stakeholders and the general public were involved in an intensive journey with a compelling story that was feasible and technically substantiated. From survey through masterplan and design to execution, the entire process was completed in the short lead-time of 5 years and with 90% of the masterplan already realized.

Results
Today everyone can find some form of leisure activity or retreat in the park. Sports, heritage, nature and culture play a central role in a City Park that is the starting point for many cycling and hiking routes. The result is a significant improvement of the public domain and local mobility. A useful public action that supports a safe and pleasant living environment and one that strengthens the tourist and recreational potential of the old city centre. The social network of the neighbourhood was strengthened. As a new ‘crowd favorite’ the park and riverbanks receive broad support which let them grow into a beautiful and meaningful meeting place.
Over more than a hectare of covered surfaces were depaved. We’ve seen a restoration of natural functions along the course of the river, both in the valley and the urban environment. Afterwards, the city council of Tongeren implemented the overall vision and goals in its climate adaptation plan. As a result the city recently planted 200 extra ‘climate trees’ within the park.
In 2021 the ‘Renovated city park ‘De Motten’ with disclosure of the Jeker River in Tongeren’ won the Public Space Prize. Every year, the Regional Knowledge Center for Public Space presents an award for the‘best’ public space in Flanders. The Public Space Prize is a prestigious recognition for good commissioning and high-quality design and execution of a project. Both professionals and the general public can cast its vote for its favourite project. We are very proud for this recognition, and we will continue to work on the design of sustainable public spaces in the future.

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第10張圖片

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第11張圖片

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第12張圖片

消失60多年的河流在城市中重現,還流經了廣場!第13張圖片

項目信息
景觀事務所:Sweco(比利時)、Sweco(基礎設施部門)
設計團隊:Sweco Belgium
項目類型:文化遺產/公園/河道/水景
客戶:通赫倫市政府
項目地點:比利時,通赫倫
項目年份:2015-2019
項目攝影:Bram Goots

Project Data
Landscape Architecture: Sweco Belgium and the Infrastructure division of Sweco
designed by Sweco Belgium
Type: Cultural Heritage / Parks / Riverbanks / Water features
Client: City of Tongeren
Location: Belgium, Tongeren
Date: 2015-2019
Photo: Bram Goots

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