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從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第1張圖片
© Todamo / Shutterstock.com

通過材料創新重新發現巴塞羅那館——鋼、玻璃和大理石
Rediscovering the Barcelona Pavilion Through its Material Innovations: Steel, Glass and Marble

由專筑網Zia,小R編譯

密斯·凡·德羅和莉莉·賴希為1929年巴塞羅那國際博覽會設計的德國館成為史上經典作品,但無論多少次重新對展館進行分析,總會有新的角度。建筑師設計策略背后的關鍵因素是,建筑對于德國形象的塑造,同時真正引入當代建筑項目中持續存在的新策略。

“我們必須擺脫功能主義的冷漠。要理解現代建筑,認為理性的解決方案就足夠了,這是錯誤的。建筑之美,對于我們這個時代和過去來說都是一種必然,除非我們在建造的時候能超越簡單的用途,否則就無法達到!薄芩埂し病さ铝_

Mies Van der Rohe and Lilly Reich’s German Pavilion for the 1929 Barcelona International Exhibition is known as the most written-about modern building. But no matter how many times the pavilion is redrawn for analysis, there are always new angles from which to interpret it. Identifying its capacity to redefine the German image, while genuinely introducing new strategies that continue present in contemporary architecture projects are two key elements of the architects’ intentions behind their design strategy.
'We have to get away from the coldness of functionalism. It is a mistake to believe that to understand the problem of modern architecture it is enough to recognize a necessity for rational solutions. Beauty in architecture, which is a necessity and finality for our time as for past periods, cannot be attained unless we can see beyond simple utility when we build.' – Mies Van der Rohe

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第2張圖片
© Hande Sigin

巴塞羅那館通過新建筑的主張不同于以前的運動,如功能主義。建筑師對材料進行創新使用,其特點是結合了三種豐富的材料:鋼、玻璃和大理石。建筑師應用精確的幾何形狀和組裝表達了這些選擇的獨創性。材料的選擇確定了特定功能,保持了清晰的建筑概念。


鋼:鍍鉻鋼柱作為承重構件

八個鍍鉻鋼柱,四個等效的二面體與4L和4T的型材,放置在矩形的平面內,形成承重元素。把結構需求留給細長的柱子,形成了開放的平面,創造一個全新的高質量流動空間。同時,墻壁可以靈活的處理其承重元素,而不受限于自身。

The Barcelona Pavilion differs from previous movements like functionalism through the proposition of a new architecture. Through an innovative use of materials, the pavilion is characterized by combining three rich materials: steel, glass and marble. The architects expressed the originality of these choices through their precise geometry and accurate assembly. The selection of materials identifies a particular function for each piece, maintaining a clear architectural concept.

Steel: Chrome-Plated Steel Posts as the Load-Bearing Element
The presence of eight chrome-plated steel posts –out of four equivalent dihedrals with 4L and 4T profiles–, placed regularly in a rectangular shape, form the load-bearing element. Leaving the structural demand to the slender posts allows an open floor plan that creates a new spatial quality - a flowing space. Simultaneously, it permits walls to dispose of their function as load-bearing elements, instead acting like objects themselves.

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第3張圖片
© Camila Prieto (ArchDaily)

在第一次世界大戰結束11年后,德國館打算通過其建筑形式向世界展示一個全新的令人安心的德國形象。典禮當天,一位德國代表說:“這里的一切都是簡單、開放的,我們沒什么好隱瞞的!蓖瑯,密斯·凡德羅改變了展館的地點,以在展覽中增加德國的存在感。

Eleven years after the end of the First World War, the German Pavilion intended to show the world a new and reassuring image of Germany through its architectural form. Exhibiting nothing but itself, according to a German representative on the inauguration day: “everything here is simple, open; we have nothing to hide.” Likewise, Mies Van der Rohe changed the assigned site for the pavilion to create a greater German presence in the exhibition.

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第4張圖片
© TETSU Snowdrop / Shutterstock.com

在展館的建造中,密斯和賴希設計了一個大型展覽序列,旨在代表德國的工業結構。隨著8處新古典主義室內設計,兩位建筑師加強了展館的建筑特色。因此,建筑內部使用了創新元素,如鍍鉻的十字形柱子。


玻璃:透明和反射

通過玻璃隔斷產生的透明和反射的相互作用,呈現了一種獨特的室內感受。

In the construction of the Pavilion, Mies and Reich played with a larger exhibiting sequence that aimed to represent the German industrial fabric. Along with the interior design of 8 neoclassical palaces, both architects enforced the architectural characteristics of the pavilion. Thus, the use of innovative elements such as the chrome-plated cross-shaped posts are present in the palaces’ interiors.

Glass: Transparencies and Reflections
With the interaction of transparencies and reflections created by the glass partitions, the scheme presents a unique perception of the interior.

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第5張圖片
© SumeyyeSimsek / Shutterstock.com

在地面的引導下,窗戶達到了近9米的寬度。通過使用三種對比鮮明的透明玻璃,室內感覺更加復雜:面向花園的灰色玻璃,將室內與水場分隔開來的橄欖綠玻璃,以及構成展館入口的無色玻璃。隨著自由平面的開放,玻璃定義了這些空間,而不是封閉它們。

Guided by the module of the pavement, the window reaches a length of almost 9 meters. The interior perception intensifies its complexity with the use of 3 contrasting types of transparent glass: gray glass towards the garden, olive-green glass dividing the interior from the water court, and an uncolored glass framing the entrance of the pavilion. Following the openness of the free floor plan, glass walls define the space without closing it in.

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第6張圖片
© Cemal Emden

這種創新可以從玻璃隔斷的使用中看出,玻璃使得空間更加自由,并使室內與外部環境融為一體。


大理石:為室內添加紋理

建筑可以適應生活方式的變化。對于密斯·凡·德羅來說,當時的生活需要簡單的指導理念。作為現代運動的一部分,展館將藝術與簡約相結合。通過簡單的線條和流暢的平面,布局旨在解決建筑問題,同時得到美學的結果。在展館的設計過程中,建筑師在實現精確的視覺效果之前,測試了不同材質的墻壁。

The innovation can be seen in the use of glass partitions, which allow freedom in the use of space and the integration of the interior with the outside environment.

Marble: Adding Texture to the Interior
Architecture adapts to the changing ways of life; for Mies van der Rohe, life at the time demanded simplicity as a guiding concept. As part of the modern movement, the pavilion combines art with simplicity. Through simple lines and smooth planes, the layout aspires to solve architectural problems while proposing an aesthetic result. During the pavilion’s design process, the architects tested different positions for the walls before achieving lines that enable precise visual effects.

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第7張圖片
© Tichr / Shutterstock.com

小時候,密斯·凡·德羅就從石匠家庭了解到不同類型的大理石和礦物。從眾多的選擇中,他選擇了四種不同的石頭:羅馬石灰華、高山綠色大理石、希臘古代綠色大理石和阿特拉斯山脈的金色縞瑪瑙。他對高貴材料的使用經驗使他在展館的墻壁中選擇了平衡的顏色和結構。

As a child, Mies Van der Rohe learned about different types of marble and minerals from his family of stonemasons. From a wide number of options, the architect chose four different kinds of stone: roman travertine, green alpine marble, ancient green marble from Greece and golden onyx from the Atlas Mountains. His experience with noble materials led him to a selection of balanced colors and structure in the stones applied in the pavilion.

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第8張圖片
© Joan_bautista / Shutterstock.com

建筑師在展館的設計中獲得了自由,這讓他可以選擇獨特的家具作為補充。密斯·凡·德羅用以前沒有用過的材料制造了一種未來現代設計的標志——由皮革軟墊金屬型材制成的巴塞羅那椅,這是一種創新的設計,至今仍然適用。

The freedom given to the architect in the design of the pavilion allowed him to create exclusive furniture as a complement. Made from materials that hadn’t been previously used, Mies Van der Rohe proposed a future icon of modern design: made from leather-upholstered metallic profile, the Barcelona Chair was an innovation that is still relevant today.

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第9張圖片
© Cemal Emden

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第10張圖片
© Cemal Emden

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第11張圖片
© Cemal Emden

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第12張圖片
© Cemal Emden

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第13張圖片
© Cemal Emden

從建筑材料的角度重讀巴塞羅那德國館第14張圖片
© Cemal Emden


參考文獻
References

Guereñu, L. M. D. (2017). The Sequence of Mies van der Rohe in Barcelona: the German Pavilion as Part of a much Larger ndustrial Presence. Docomomo Journal, (56), 56–63. https://doi.org/10.52200/56.A.UY5O2BW6
Neumann, Dietrich. The Barcelona Pavilion by Mies van der Rohe: One Hundred Texts since 1929, Berlin, Boston: Birkhäuser, 2020.

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建筑 (13398 articles)


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