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來自建筑師和設計師的5種抗疫策略第1張圖片

Five ways architects and designers are helping the fight against coronavirus

由專筑網小R編譯

從設計面罩到扁平化重癥監護病房,再到3D打印無接觸門桿和改造醫院,建筑師和設計師們針對新冠病毒進行了多種構思,如下為5種設計策略。

From designing face shields and flat-pack intensive care units to 3D-printing hands-free door levers and converting buildings to hospitals, architects and designers are tackling the coronavirus pandemic. Here are five ways they are helping.

來自建筑師和設計師的5種抗疫策略第2張圖片

改造醫院

新冠病毒感染患者數量空前巨大,因此各個國家都不得不提升病人收治容量。

那么為了做到這一點,全球的建筑都在將各個不同的建筑改造為重癥病房。例如在德黑蘭的伊朗購物中心,也是全球最大的購物中心,這里就被改造為新冠病毒醫院,同時紐約的圣約翰大教堂也進行了改造。

會議中心有著大量的開放空間,也是一個很好的改造地點,BDP建筑工作室將英國倫敦的ExCel中心改造為4000床的NHS Nightingale醫院。

建筑里設計有兩個大型病房,依據不同的區域和中央走廊分隔開,便于醫護人員穿脫防護服,另外還有員工食堂、診療室,以及停尸房。

James Hepburn說:“倫敦的床位十分短缺,而ExCel中心則是很好的選擇!

“這里有著很大的樓層空間和靈活的MEP設施,因此很滿足臨時醫院的需求!

Converting buildings to hospitals
The unprecedented number of coronavirus cases is forcing countries around the world to rapidly increase their capacity to treat patients.
To do this, buildings across the world are being converted into intensive care units. In Tehran, Iran Mall, the world's largest shopping centre, is being transformed into a coronavirus hospital, while in New York the Cathedral of St. John the Divine is also set to be converted.
With large open spaces, conference centres are an obvious choice for conversion and architecture studio BDP has converted the ExCel Centre in London into a 4,000-bed hospital called NHS Nightingale.
Two giant wards have been created in the exhibition halls, which are divide from a central corridor by areas to put on and take off protective clothing. A staff canteen, diagnosis room and mortuary complete the hospital.
"When the scale of the shortfall in beds across London became clear, the ExCel centre was the obvious choice," BDP's James Hepburn told Dezeen.
"It has huge flat floor hall spaces with flexible MEP infrastructure that can be easily adapted to meet the needs of the temporary hospital."

來自建筑師和設計師的5種抗疫策略第3張圖片

臨時重癥監護室

建筑師們意識到需要建立臨時的重癥監護室,在疾病大面積爆發后收治病人。

為了應對美國的疫情爆發,扁平化新興企業Jupe設計了一系列的醫療設施,目的是快速地安裝醫療設備,增加醫院收治容量,同時也可以用于獨立的野戰醫院。

Jupe首席醫療顧問Esther Choo解釋:“當聯邦政府的救援計劃開始實施時,醫院也無法迅速地解決所有問題!

在意大利,建筑師Carlo Ratti和Italo Rota用集裝箱設計了重癥監護艙,其首個原型應用在米蘭的一座醫院中。

Designing temporary intensive care units
Architects have also recognised the need to create temporary intensive care units that can be rapidly deployed, following China's rapid construction of a temporary hospital to treat patients at the start of the pandemic.
In response to the outbreak in the USA, flat-pack startup Jupe has created a range of medical care facilities that are designed to be quickly installed at hospitals to increase bed capacity, or that could be used as stand-alone field hospitals.
"Hospitals can't tackle it all rapidly enough, even once the federal government's aid package kicks in," explained Jupe chief medical advisor Esther Choo.
In Italy, architects Carlo Ratti and Italo Rota designed an intensive-care pod within a shipping container. The first prototype is currently under construction at a hospital in Milan.

來自建筑師和設計師的5種抗疫策略第4張圖片

設計面罩

許多國家的醫護人員防護設備十分緊缺,因此建筑師和設計師已經著手開始設計與制造。

美國諸如BIG、KPF、Handel建筑事務所已經加入了一個開放項目,目的是打印防護面罩,同時西班牙的3D打印品牌Nagami Design也已經將機器改造用于制作面罩。

英國福斯特建筑事務所決定設計一種激光切割替代面罩,這種開放設備能夠經過消毒而重復使用。

麻省理工學院、劍橋大學、昆士蘭大學,以及羅德島設計學院的畢業生們也在積極設計面罩。

麻省理工學院設計了一種一次性面罩,這種面罩由塑料制作而成,能夠批量生產,易于運輸,折疊之后即可使用。

羅德島設計學院的畢業生設計了一種簡單的面罩,這種面罩是將彎曲的塑料和頭巾結合在一起,而劍橋大學和昆士蘭大學的學生們的設計甚至無法特殊材料和工具。

Designing face shields
In some countries, the pandemic has led to a shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect health workers. In response, architects and designers have begun designing and manufacturing it themselves.
In the USA, studios including BIG, KPF and Handel Architects have joined an open-source project to print face shields, while in Spain 3D-printing brand Nagami Design has switched its machines from making furniture to shields.
British architecture studio Foster + Partners decided to design an alternative face shield that can be laser cut. The open-source device can be disassembled and sanitised for reuse.
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the University of Cambridge and the University of Queensland, and graduates from Rhode Island School of Design have all also designed face shields.
MIT has developed a disposable face shield that is made from a single piece of plastic, which can be mass-produced and shipped flat. Pieces of plastic and be folded into a three-dimensional structure when needed.
The RISD graduates created a simple shield that combines a curved piece of plastic with a headstrap, while the University of Cambridge and the University of Queensland's design can be created with no specialist materials or tools.

來自建筑師和設計師的5種抗疫策略第5張圖片

制作口罩

口罩是個人防護用品,在疫情期間的需求量大大增加,為了應對這種需求變化,許多設計與時尚品牌都開始生產口罩。

Prada、COS、Louis Vuitton領先開始生產外科口罩,而Yves Saint Laurent和Balenciaga則開始生產棉口罩。

Making face masks
Face masks are another item of PPE that have seen a massive increase in demand during the pandemic. In response to shortages, numerous designs and fashion brands have converted their factories to mask production.
Prada, COS and Louis Vuitton are among the leading brands that have retooled to manufacture surgical face masks, while Yves Saint Laurent and Balenciaga have begun production of cotton face masks.

來自建筑師和設計師的5種抗疫策略第6張圖片

抗疫黑科技

建筑師和設計師在使用3D打印工具來快速地完成項目,這些項目能夠讓設備用于解決由于疫情而引發的問題。

中國3D打印制造商Creality為了緩解醫護人員在治療病人是戴口罩的痛苦,設計師們設計了一種特殊設備,這種設備能夠能夠讓口罩無需掛在耳朵上。

建筑師Ivo Tedbury和Freddie Hong設計了一種3D打印門把手延長構件,這樣使用者可以無接觸地開門。

在意大利,由于需求量大,制造商Isinnova通過3D打印生產了一種氧氣面罩關鍵閥,這種設備曾經用于通風機。

Isinnova公司的CEO Cristian Fracass說:“這種關鍵閥有很小的孔和管,尺寸小于0.8毫米,打印難度比較大,但是必須以無污染的方式進行臨床生產!

Hacking equipment
Architects and designers have been using their 3D-printers to quickly create items that alter equipment to solve problems raised by the pandemic.
To make wearing face masks less painful for medical staff treating patients, Chinese 3D-printer manufacturer Creality is printing a device that holds the strings away from the wearer's ears.
Architectural designers Ivo Tedbury and Freddie Hong have created a 3D-printed door-handle extension that users can loop their arm through so they can open doors without using their hands.
In Italy, additive manufacturing start-up Isinnova reverse engineered and 3D-printed a crucial valve for a oxygen mask, which is used as part of a ventilator machine, following a shortage.
"The valve has very thin holes and tubes, smaller than 0.8 millimetres – it's not easy to print the pieces," said Isinnova CEO Cristian Fracass. "Plus you have to respect not [contaminating] the product – really it should be produced in a clinical way."

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